Best P2E Games

ZBD’s Bitcoin Rewards, Trends, and Interview with Ben Cousens

ZBD’s Bitcoin Rewards, Trends, and Interview with Ben Cousens

Game Review 

Explore ZBD’s role in web3 gaming, where players earn Bitcoin rewards. Interview with Ben Cousens reveals trends shaping the future.

ZBD, or ZEBEDEE, is a leading player in web3 gaming, distinguished by its super successful games that rewards players in Bitcoin and its web3 services for developers. It also stands out due to its one-of-a-kind name, which has multiple meanings. Zebedee means “Gift of God” in Hebrew, which is a close guess but not quite right. It is a recursive acronym for Zebedee Empowers Bitcoin Enabled Digital Economy Engines. We learned about ZBD, its upcoming projects, the future of web3, and more in an interview with Ben Cousens, the chief strategy officer of Zebedee. Zebedee’s primary mission is to enable virtual worlds to transact value in the same way that real worlds do.

Earn Bitcoin by Playing Zebedee Games, The Secret Lies in the Lightning Network

Ben: The core of what we provide is an API for the Lightning network, which is Bitcoin’s second layer of scaling. We are big fans of the Lightening Network and we think that it really works specifically for the games industry. The reason is that games as in industry it thrive on micro transactions. If you are playing a free-to-play game like Candy Crush, you make purchases once a week or twice a month. You buy something like a boost pack or power pack and that’s going to be a couple of dollars. The unit economics of that industry are measured in dollars are cents. Well, the perfect thing about lightning is that its for those micro-transactions that wouldn’t work on the main chain of Bitcoin.

So, what we can do is allow developers to share some of the value they are earning back to the player and then it becomes a different relationship of you as a game developer with your player. It’s also very sustainable because the revenue being shared with the player in the form of bitcoin price is a  percentage of the game. So previous web3 games have overpaid to acquire users quickly but then they run out of ability to sustain the amount of earnings they have been giving the players. It says the rewards can grow with the scale of the player base. At first, the rewards are small but they get larger as more players join. Its the function of the revenue share.

Web3 Gaming Market Outlook, What Went Wrong?

Ben: A couple of years back we were independent of web3 and at that time the industry was seeing a tremendous amount of investment pouring in. Every number went up no matter where you looked. That began to collapse with the rise of inflation and interest rates. But being less macroeconomic, folks were over-anticipating market readiness for the technology. Another way to put it we were in the trough of disillusionment. So, you had a period of massive promise, the technology was discovered, and everyone got excited about the possibilities that it enabled. And then we got it with the hump of that and people started building and during the build phase people started to realize Oh actually this is complicated and it is going to take time. In many cases, the audience is actually not there yet. The community that was anticipated failed to materialize.

And it has multiple factors that got into play, it’s not only about crypto, it was the same with other technologies being adopted as well. VR is a great example, it had so many false starts before it got into any kind of mainstream audience and even today there is a question mark around whether VR is actually going to go mainstream. All eyes are on what happens with Apple’s goggles on that point of view. So, web3 is also in a similar place there is a lot of learning still to do, the user experience needs to get a lot better, the play experience needs to feel like entertainment, and the barriers to entry need to be substantially reduced.

The Use of Blockchain Tech to Market and the Driving Force or Use it as Underlying Technology to Further Game Elements

Ben: Blockchain as an underlying technology to further gaming experience is a fundamental belief I hold. I think you need to treat the protocols as tools, it’s the same as email or the way the internet works using TCPIP, we don’t lead with that. When you send an email to your friend, it is the content of the email that your eyes and attention is drawn to, it doesn’t make you look for the technology behind the scene like the SMTP server you are connecting to. But in web3 we are still in that world, in Metamask you have to choose which RPC time you are connecting to, this stuff is far too technical. People aren’t going to do it.

There are so many contingent parts to making a web3 user experience more equivalent to existing user experiences call it in web2 or in entertainment mediums. There’s a lot of work to be done around here both around non-custodial asset ownership, security, etc. So there is a lot of work to do. All of these things mix together to result in very low userbases. We will get there, but I think people’s time horizons are a little bit off in terms of where the market really is.

Major hurdles to Developers and Game Studios in Web3/ What Mistakes Web3 Developers are Making?

Ben: I believe in the principle, of keeping it simple. Many game developers who were introduced to web3 concepts and blockchains in the last three years were led to believe or draw conclusions that the technology was ready for their audiences. As they began to work with it, they jumped head first, they went straight from a normal game, like a regular old game where there is nothing fancy about it, you play it, you beat the boss, and finish the game. And now, I am going to form a DAO, a governance token, an economy token, and then I am gonna gate it with an NFT mint that you need to access it.

So, basically, this is like putting up walls to access, suddenly, the user base just plummets. It is because people had to figure out how to get a Metamask, how to go to OpenSea, how to swap their ETH into Matic, and how to use that Matic to purchase the NFT. How to take that NFT and bring it to the DAO? There is so much to learn that most players were just like NO! I am out! I am done with this. And that doesn’t surprise me.

I believe we need to keep it simple. And one of the simplest things you can do is think about the incentive you want to give the player. What is the entertainment experience you want to deliver? And the fundamental question: is it fun? The technology and user experience aren’t quite there yet.

How ZBD’s Approach is Different? Free to Play and Earn

Ben: On the other side, there is a whole kind of earning incentive and we at Zebedee have linked into that. Because we figured out what we believe is the simplest way to do it which is to target very casual games with low friction onboarding and then match the user experience where the earning is free and does not require you to do anything other than play the game. We have had success there, we count our daily active players in the tens and thousands and we are pleased with the traction we are building.

The Securities Risk in Web3 Gaming

Ben: However, other risks are out there, the significant one among the lot is the Securities risk. Like it or not, it is the reality of the market environment in which folks are operating and the environment is such that the SEC is like a person walking around with a loaded gun and they are picking people in the room and shooting them in the head. And you don’t know which person is gonna get picked. To check who is gonna get picked is to see who did the token offering. If you are a game developer and new to this space, you should think twice because the risk of being taken to jail is actually real and in gaming in particular you are dealing with young audiences.

So, you are mixing security law, gambling, real money, gaming, and streaming. You are basically asking for a target to be put on your back.

ZBD Upcoming Projects

Ben: We have a couple of exciting game titles in the next 60 to 90 days in the hyper-casual and casual space. We have a couple of PC titles coming that are very well known and we are excited to preview those to the audiences and take them out to the wider audiences as we can possibly reach. I personally play these games and I find it fun and really excited about the fact that the teams at these studios have also seen eye to eye with us and believe that they can deliver a very engaging, competitive experience in play.

The best thing is that our software doesn’t need any updates to the game to work. So players will be able to play the exact same game, download it the same way through Steam, etc and they can have fun just with a new enhancement that is powered by us.

The ZBD Experience in a Nutshell

Ben: We are continuing to really accelerate in the mobile casual space and we do view this as the easiest way to on-ramp into crypto through Bitcoin and then have fun while you are doing so. The play experience for ZBD is such that you might encounter a game like Sudoku or Solitaire or Tick Tack Toe, and you download that game and you play it and as you play it the game is telling you and showing you that you are winning Bitcoin for free. You claim it to your ZBD wallet where you also find a social network where you can talk to other ZBD players, you can send each other Bitcoin back and forth for sharing content and you can find more games to play that payout Bitcoin.

And we have seen in our community that people have been competing to flex how much free bitcoin they are earning and people talk about race to a million Satoshi. A million satoshi is 0.01 bitcoin. And people are jokingly having fun trying to play all the games to reach the figure, so they can call themselves a millionaire, I imagine. So, that’s kind of what the player experience is like, and we are continuing to bring a lot of traction there we have got nearly 100 games live now in the casual mobile space.

Sharing Content and Getting Pipped in Bitcoin on ZBD Social Platform

Ben: We are moving a little bit into hybrid casual and getting richer and deeper games coming in. And we are also seeing increasingly through our social network where user-generated content is coming to the fore where people are being pipped in Bitcoin for sharing content. You can see it as a community that is centered around the kind of magical experience of being paid factions of Bitcoin for free while you are having fun.

Your time is worth something right, time is money is the old saying, and now when you are playing games wasting time, especially in my parents’ eyes, now, you are being paid for it. So, is it a waste of time anymore? We try to make it fun we don’t get drawn into big debates around Bitcoin and crypto and its bla bla bla its not the point. The point is this is fun you don’t have to spend any of your own money, you get money for free and you join a community that is all engaged in the same activity and enjoying themselves. We are trying to build a positive space, that brings change to people’s lives.

Blockchain marketing to reach wider audiences

Ben: On one hand in my perspective is that the root of onboarding many users is to persuade game developers with popular games, that’s the obvious commercial interest we have. Bigger and bigger developers with more and more users and let them see the benefits that our technology brings. Our business model is clear, the reason game developers choose to integrate ZBD is cause their own games make more money, so the players start playing longer and engaging more because they are now earning something from the game. So the game developers are making money and the players are making money.

But on the other side, we do look at our community, it has started to actually scale at this point and one major development that happened was one of our developers created a social media protocol called NOSTR. It’s going to about 20 million users and Jack Dorsi is a big fan of it. But the material thing from our perspective is that now you can take this community of gamers and you can allow them to interact with each other as well as interact with a wider social network. This social networking includes many features. So, one of the big ones you said is how we are going to get streamers, someone has built a clone called Zap Stream.

Zap Stream is like Twitch except when I am watching, I can hit the Zap button and can choose how many Zaps (Bitcoin in pennies) I want to send and pipping them in real-time. It incentivizes content creators to join the platform because they can keep 99% of everything that they make. The only thing that goes is the transaction fee.

Future of Web3 Gaming

Ben: I am an optimist, I do believe we will get to the full vision of web3 gaming as it relates to the metaverse as well. Although these concepts have fallen out of favor because they got way too overhyped and now it’s like back to reality. I do think we will get there in the long run but the path to get there is not going to be a 2-year journey or a 5-year journey, it’s likely to be a 10-year journey. Bitcoin is the oldest cryptocurrency, it’s the OG, it’s 14 years old. The vast majority of users of Bitcoin are still on the chain and not using Layer 2. So, the adoption curve of these things is much longer than people think.

I think it’s gonna be a journey to get all the way to tokenized game economies that are interoperable. It’s a lot of work that goes into that and many component parts simply don’t exist. One of the biggest examples of that is the beginning of the web3 bonanza, was folks talking about interoperable game assets and the crypto folks could see that, I could see that it would be exciting because all I need is a signature on the NFT, and to prove that I could that in the other world but on the game’s industry side there is absolutely no interoperability. There are no standard sets, there is no standardization for assets, avatars, weapons, skins, and animation. There is nothing! So, how could that possibly have happened in 2 or 3 years it was farcical to think so.

The Final Takeaway

Ben: So, I think the real message or takeaway I give to folks is, If you are looking for what can scale today, think about what the technology is truly capable of today and what it isn’t capable of. And I think what the technology is capable of is millions of instant small payments and to some extent asset ownership but you are gonna pay a lot of money for it. There is no scenario where a game scales at present where the collectibles aren’t going to be eye-watering in how much they cost to cover the transaction fees. Cause layer 2 is not scaled enough. But we will get there, like in 5 years’ time. I’ll probably be sitting here and saying Oh great, now we can transfer this asset instantly and cheaply, fantastic!

Who knows where we are with the game’s industry if they have managed to create a set of interoperable standards yet? Who knows where VR has gone in terms of do we migrate to these 3D worlds and those become like game launchers? Do we go to Meta’s Horizon labs to open up Fortnite, Do we go to Apple Vision to open up Counter-Strike, I don’t know. These questions are still to be determined by the market. So, I’d focus on the simple mobile games that pay you for free, web3 experiences in the browser that are focused on both simple value propositions and don’t get over complicated with tokenomics and DAOs. These things can function well today. We will probably get to the metaverse in 15 to 20 years that’s my take on the future.

Who is Ben Cousens, and what role does he play at Zebedee?

Ben Cousens is the Chief Strategy Officer of Zebedee. He plays a significant role in the company’s strategic decisions and vision. In the interview, he shares insights into Zebedee’s mission and future projects.

How does Zebedee make gaming more sustainable for both developers and players?

Zebedee’s approach allows game developers to share a portion of their earnings with players, creating a sustainable model. Rewards start small but grow as more players join, ensuring long-term viability without overpaying for user acquisition.

What are the major hurdles faced by developers and game studios in the web3 gaming space?

Developers often face the challenge of making web3 gaming too complex, leading to user drop-offs. The integration of tokenomics, DAOs, and NFTs can be overwhelming for players. Simplicity in game design and player incentives is crucial for success.

What sets Zebedee’s approach apart from other web3 gaming platforms?

Zebedee focuses on casual games with low friction onboarding, making it easy for players to start earning Bitcoin without the need for complex setups. It offers a unique play experience, where players can win Bitcoin while having fun in games like Sudoku or Tic-Tac-Toe.

What is the future of web3 gaming according to Zebedee’s perspective?

Zebedee’s perspective on the future of web3 gaming is optimistic but realistic. They believe that full-scale adoption of web3 and tokenized game economies will take time, possibly a decade or more. The focus should be on what technology can truly achieve today, such as microtransactions and simple value propositions, while avoiding overcomplication.

ZBD's Bitcoin Rewards, Trends, and Interview with Ben Cousens
ZBD’s Bitcoin Rewards, Trends, and Interview with Ben Cousens

About W3 Play:

Catalyzing the Future of Gaming | W3 Play

In just under a year, W3 Play has surged to become a powerhouse with 50+ global and local game review portals and a staggering 2 million+ monthly unique visitors. Our flagship, PlaytoEarnGames.com, boasts 2,300+ game reviews, solidifying our role as the go-to marketing partner for game developers in the Play-to-Earn, NFT, Crypto, Web3, Blockchain, and Metaverse gaming universe.

News Article Description

In this insightful article, gamers should take note of ZBD’s groundbreaking role in web3 gaming, where players can earn Bitcoin rewards while enjoying their favorite games. An interview with Ben Cousens, ZBD’s Chief Strategy Officer, unveils key trends shaping the future of gaming, emphasizing simplicity and player incentives. ZBD’s unique approach to sustainability in the gaming industry stands out, offering a win-win situation for both developers and players. The article explores the challenges and opportunities in web3 gaming and provides a realistic perspective on its future. Gamers, developers, and enthusiasts will gain valuable insights into the evolving world of blockchain gaming and the importance of maintaining a user-friendly experience. Dive into this article to discover the transformative potential of ZBD and the trends that are reshaping the gaming landscape.

News Categories:

Blockchain Gaming, Web3 Trends, Bitcoin Rewards, ZBD (Zebedee), Ben Cousens, Gaming Industry, Sustainability in Gaming

ZBD’s Bitcoin Rewards, Trends, and Interview with Ben Cousens

If you like this game, share it with your friends:

Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn
Reddit
WhatsApp
Telegram
Pinterest
Skype
VK
Email

Find our Best P2E Games list. All games are included with reviews and links to the game review page. Have Fun!

More Games

Related P2E Games: Play To Earn Crypto, NFT, Web3

Dreams Quest: P2E RPG Card Game DreamsVerse Metaverse

“Dreams Quest” is an ambitious, decentralized free-to-play RPG card game that offers a play-to-earn experience, set in an open world. This mobile action-adventure RPG is on the verge of creating a groundbreaking metaverse-driven ecosystem called DreamsVerse. In this autonomous DreamsVerse, players can engage in a decentralized play-to-earn RPG experience using dynamic NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens). These NFTs are at the heart of the game, with enigmatic variables influencing character attributes and post-game outcomes inscribing alterations to NFT card attributes on the blockchain. “Dreams Quest” is notable for its breathtaking artistry and exceptional gameplay, setting it apart from standard games. It goes beyond a typical game, offering a complete Play-to-Earn experience with its own Metaverse. In the inaugural season of the game, players are presented with the choice between two realms, Celestial and Infernal, and various character races. They can embark on solo adventures or form factions with guildmates for epic battles. The game’s expansive world, known as the DreamVerse Metaverse, consists of seven diverse lands, providing players with a plethora of opportunities, from quests and events to tournaments, all while accumulating wealth and uncovering new items. The game also offers a multitude of quests, challenging players to solve intricate puzzles and uncover enigmatic mysteries. The lore of “Dreams Quest” revolves around a bygone era of enlightenment, guided by Totemics, which formed the foundation for five ancient races to coexist in unity. During this time, the Ancients harnessed the powerful force of Weka, giving them mastery over time, space, and matter. This power allowed them to interact with elements, crystals, and organic matter, shaping their world. However, the Discord era threatened to destroy Azoria, only to be saved by notable figures within the Council of Ancients, Cima and Arvid.

After the Inclision event, the world transformed into a dreamlike realm, defying the laws of physics, time, and space. Players arriving in this altered reality sought allies and navigated a landscape filled with uncertainty, uncovering a complex tapestry of truths and deceptions, guided by enigmatic beings, some of whom were surviving Ancients.

Gameplay in “Dreams Quest” involves creating characters and selecting factions to guide them through an adventurous realm. Character progression relies on gaining experience and acquiring formidable items. Each character’s origin grants two introductory decks. Quests take players to diverse territories, seeking treasures for trading in the marketplace and challenging dragons for rewards and rankings. Cooperative play allows friends to join forces on these quests. As players advance, they collect cards to expand their strategies, earned through quests, tournaments, and events. Cards can be forged, upgraded, or traded. The game also features a PvP mode, enabling thrilling battles using NFT cards and items, where outcomes shape the cards’ attributes. Every card is a dynamic NFT, influenced by in-game scenarios, evolving with each play and outcome, making every card’s journey unique.

In terms of the game’s tokenomics, $DREAMS will serve as the in-game currency for governance and utility factors, contributing to the in-game economy and community participation.

The enthusiastic community response to “Dreams Quest” is evident in the comments provided, with players expressing excitement about the game’s magical and enchanting elements, the quality of graphics, and the anticipation for its launch. “Dreams Quest” seems poised to deliver an innovative and immersive gaming experience that has garnered significant attention and excitement within the gaming community.

Read Game Review »

Taurion – Game Review

Taurion is a revolutionary new game on the WEB3 platform that is fully decentralized and player-focused. This means that the game is built with the needs and interests of the community in mind, and it will never shut down unless the players themselves decide that it should. Taurion is designed to be a fully immersive gaming experience where players have the freedom to explore, create, and interact with one another in a way that is both engaging and fair. Whether you’re a seasoned gamer or new to the world of WEB3, Taurion has something for everyone. Taurion is a decentralized game that is being developed by Xaya, a division of Autonomous Worlds Ltd. It is a sandbox game set in an ever-evolving universe that is built and owned by the players themselves. As a player-oriented game on the WEB3 platform, Taurion gives players the opportunity to shape the metaverse surrounding the game and have a real impact on its direction and development. Whether you’re interested in exploring, building, or simply enjoying the freedom of a sandbox game, Taurion has something for you. Taurion Gameplay: The game is all about mining, refining, building, excavating, scavenging, strategizing, looting, planning, surviving, exploring, traveling, and trading. In short, the game is very much like real life but in the future where the threat is alien. Tokenomics: CHI is the in-game utility token and Xaya is the governance token handling the economy of the game. Players can earn or buy CHI on cryptocurrency exchanges. Besides, the developers plan on making the game a play-to-earn experience but it will depend on how the community reacts to the game and how many people join it. Thus, the more people who become part of the project, the more it will have the opportunity to make it a play-to-earn project.

Read Game Review »

Tanks for Playing – Game Review

Players in Tanks for Playing can earn rewards by competing against each other in strategic tank battles and completing missions. The game features a wide variety of customizable tanks and weapons, each with their own unique abilities and attributes. Players can also team up with their friends to form powerful clans and take on tougher challenges. In Tanks for Playing, players can earn rewards by completing missions and winning battles. These rewards can be used to upgrade their tanks and weapons or traded on the marketplace for other in-game items. The game also has a unique battle pass system that allows players to unlock special bonuses and rewards as they progress through the game. Overall, Tanks for Playing offers a fun and immersive gaming experience for players looking for a strategic and cooperative multiplayer game. Each player begins the game with two energy and two hearts, and their tanks have two tile ranges each.  According to the order they came into the game, players are assigned locations on the map. Aim is to win $TANK and make money. So, the tempo of the game is divided into three different game modes. Players can use their energy points to build and upgrade their army of tanks, as well as to attack and defend against other players. The game has a variety of different tanks, each with its own unique abilities and strengths. Players can also form alliances with other players and work together to conquer territory and defeat their enemies. In addition to earning energy points, players can also earn rewards by completing missions and achievements in the game. These rewards can include in-game currency, rare tanks, and other valuable items. Players can also earn rewards by participating in tournaments and events. Overall, Tanks for Playing is a fun and engaging multiplayer strategy game that offers players the opportunity to earn rewards as they play. Whether you prefer to go it alone or join forces with other players, there is plenty of exciting gameplay to be had in this immersive and tactical game. Obstacles and moving barriers on maps can prevent players from shooting or moving. Besides, the players’ actions are recorded on the blockchain as transactions. During their turns, players can take a variety of activities, including attack, upgrade, move, gift, and pass. Moving a tile costs one energy, increasing range and hearts costs three, and attacking foes within range costs one energy. A player within range may additionally receive one energy or a heart as a gift.

Read Game Review »

Wizarre – Game Review

Welcome to Wizarre, the ultimate Web3 Game that brings the magic of NFTs to your mobile device! In Wizarre, you’ll discover a world of rare and unique NFT creatures known as Wizards. These powerful beings are yours to collect, trade, and battle as you compete against players from around the globe. Experience the thrill of magical battles as you command your team of NFT Wizards to victory. With turn-based gameplay and a wide range of tactical options, each match is a unique and exciting challenge. But that’s just the beginning. Level up your wizards to unlock new abilities and evolve them into more powerful forms. In Wizarre, you’ll have the opportunity to customize your NFT Wizards, building your dream team of one-of-a-kind creatures. When you’re ready to take your team to the next level, head to the marketplace to trade with other players. With a dedicated marketplace for buying and selling NFTs, you can discover rare Wizards and grow your collection like never before. Summon your unique NFTs and watch as they come to life in battle. With stunning visuals and immersive gameplay, Wizarre is an NFT game for players who want to experience the magic of the blockchain like never before. So what are you waiting for? Join the Wizarre community today and discover the world of NFT Wizards for yourself!

Read Game Review »

Best P2E Games list 2024

ZBD’s Bitcoin Rewards, Trends, and Interview with Ben Cousens

P2E News, short for “Play-to-Earn News,” is a category of updates and information within the broader spectrum of Crypto News, Web3 News, NFT News, and Blockchain News. These terms are all interconnected and represent various facets of the rapidly evolving digital landscape.

Play-to-Earn (P2E) is a gaming model that has gained immense popularity within the crypto and blockchain communities. In P2E games, players can earn cryptocurrencies or NFTs by participating in the game, often through activities like completing quests, collecting items, or trading assets. P2E News covers developments, announcements, and trends related to these innovative gaming experiences that allow players to monetize their in-game efforts.

Crypto News, on the other hand, focuses on the broader world of cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, and a multitude of altcoins. This category encompasses news about market trends, regulatory changes, new blockchain technologies, and updates related to various tokens. Crypto News is a fundamental aspect of the blockchain ecosystem, as cryptocurrencies serve as the primary means of value transfer and exchange within the Web3 space.

Web3 News is an umbrella term that refers to the next-generation internet, often characterized by decentralized applications, blockchain technology, and smart contracts. The Web3 ecosystem seeks to provide a more user-centric and decentralized internet experience. This category of news covers developments in decentralized finance (DeFi), non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and various other applications built on blockchain technology. For the ultimate and best play to earn games list, check our friends of playtoearngames.com.

NFT News focuses on Non-Fungible Tokens, unique digital assets that are indivisible and represent ownership of a specific item, artwork, or collectible. NFTs have gained prominence in the art world, gaming industry, and entertainment sector. NFT News keeps enthusiasts informed about NFT sales, new projects, and partnerships within the NFT space.

Blockchain News pertains to the foundational technology behind cryptocurrencies and Web3 applications. Blockchains are decentralized ledgers that record transactions across a network of computers, ensuring transparency and security. Updates in this category might include innovations in blockchain consensus mechanisms, interoperability between different blockchain networks, and industry applications beyond cryptocurrencies.

In summary, P2E News is a niche subset of Crypto News, Web3 News, NFT News, and Blockchain News. It focuses on gaming experiences where players can earn cryptocurrencies or NFTs, while the other categories encompass a broader range of topics within the decentralized digital landscape, including cryptocurrencies, web3 technologies, NFTs, and blockchain advancements. Collectively, these categories shape the landscape of the digital economy, offering insights into how technology is revolutionizing various aspects of our lives.